09 Dec 2016

RULES OF CHANGE IN TENSE IN INDIRECT SPEECH

CHANGE OF TENSE IN INDIRECT SPEECH If the tense of the reporting verb i.e. tense outside the reported speech is present or future, the tense of the reported speech never changes. But when the reporting verb is in past, the tense of the reported verb gets changed in the following

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09 Dec 2016

DIRECT/INDIRECT SPEECH RULES ON ‘HAD BETTER’, ‘MIGHT’, ‘OUGHT TO/SHOULD’, ‘WOULD’, ‘USED TO’

DIRECT/INDIRECT SPEECH RULES ON ‘HAD BETTER’, ‘MIGHT’, ‘OUGHT TO/SHOULD’, ‘WOULD’, ‘USED TO’ 1. HAD BETTER 1st/3rd PERSON + HAD BETTER remains unchanged, but 2nd PERSON + HAD BETTER either can remain unchanged or be reported by ADVISE + OBJECT + INFINITIVE (first form of the verb) e.g. 1. He said,

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09 Dec 2016

DIRECT/INDIRECT SPEECH RULES ON ‘COULD’

DIRECT/INDIRECT SPEECH RULES ON ‘COULD’ A) COULD for ability i) FOR PRESENT ABILITY COULD for present ability does not change; e.g. “I could not stand on my head,” he said. = He said he could not stand on his head. ii) COULD FOR PAST ABILITY COULD for past ability can

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09 Dec 2016

DIRECT/INDIRECT SPEECH RULES ON ‘MUST’

DIRECT/INDIRECT SPEECH RULES ON ‘MUST’ 1. MUST (Affirmative Sentences) i) When MUST remains unchanged in the indirect speech MUST remains unchanged for DEDUCTIONS (strong beliefs based on some solid reasoning), PERMANENT COMMANDS/PROHIBITIONS, and to express INTENTIONS. DEDUCTIONS (strong beliefs based on some solid reasoning) She said, “I’m always running into him,

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09 Dec 2016

DIRECT/INDIRECT SPEECH RULES ON ‘NEED’

DIRECT/INDIRECT SPEECH RULES ON ‘NEED’ 1. NEEDN’T (Negative Sentences) i) NEEDN’T can remain unchanged and usually does; e.g. He said, “You needn’t wait.” = He said that I needn’t wait. ii) When NEEDN’T either remains unchanged or becomes WOULDN’T HAVE TO in the indirect speech When the obligation depends on

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09 Dec 2016

DIRECT/INDIRECT SPEECH RULES ON ‘LET’

DIRECT/INDIRECT SPEECH RULES ON ‘LET’ 1. LET’S/LET US i) FOR A SUGGESTION LET’S/LET US usually expresses a suggestion and is reported by: SUGGEST + GERUND or SUGGEST + POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE (my, his, their, etc) + GERUND (Use of pronoun (me, him, them etc) in place of possessive adjective (my, his,

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09 Dec 2016

DIRECT/INDIRECT SPEECH RULES OF REPORTING ‘SUGGESTIONS’

DIRECT/INDIRECT SPEECH RULES OF REPORTING ‘SUGGESTIONS’ A suggestion can be reported in any of the following manners: SUGGEST/SUGGESTED + (POSSESSIVE ADJECTIVE) + GERUND OR SUGGEST THAT + SUBJECT + PRESENT TENSE/SHOULD OR SUGGESTED THAT + SUBJECT + PAST TENSE/SHOULD OR SUGGEST (any tense) + noun/pronoun EXAMPLES: 1. Ram said, “Let’s

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09 Dec 2016

DIRECT/INDIRECT SPEECH OF ‘INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES’

DIRECT/INDIRECT SPEECH OF ‘INTERROGATIVE SENTENCES’ 1. When it’s a question in the direct speech, it’s necessary that we change it to the assertive form. The question mark (?) is therefore omitted in the indirect speech; e.g. He said, “Where does she live?” = He asked where she lived. 2. The

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09 Dec 2016

INDIRECT SPEECH OF COMMANDS/ORDERS, REQUESTS, ADVICE

INDIRECT SPEECH OF COMMANDS/ORDERS, REQUESTS, ADVICE Verbs ADVISE, ASK, BEG, COMMAND, FORBID, ORDER, RECOMMEND, REQUEST, TELL, URGE, WARN, INVITE are used with an OBJECT + INFINITIVE (first form of the verb); e.g. 1. He said, “Get your coat, Mohan!” = He told Mohan to get his coat. OR He told

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09 Dec 2016

INDIRECT SPEECH OF ‘EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES’

INDIRECT SPEECH OF ‘EXCLAMATORY SENTENCES’ Exclamations usually become statements in indirect speech. The exclamation mark (!) disappears and the FULL STOP (.) takes place instead. 1. Exclamations beginning with WHAT, HOW, etc can be reported by ‘Exclaim/Say That’ or ‘Give an Exclamation of Delight/Disgust/Horror/Relief/Surprise, etc’; e.g. 1. He said, “What

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